“Sabbath,” an enervation of the mind and re-

“Sabbath,” an enervation of the mind and re- laxation of the limbs,—in short, a purely passive phenomenon. While the aristocratic man livedi
in confidence and openness with himself (yevvaio’;,
” noble-born,” emphasises the nuance ” sincere,” and perhaps also ” naif”), the resentful man, on
the other hand, is neither sincere nor naif, nor
honest and candid with himself^ His soul squints
;
his mind loves hidden crannies, tortuous paths and
back-doors, everything secret appeals to him as
Ais world, Ms safety, Ais balm ; he is past master
in silence, in not forgetting, in waiting, in provisional self-depreciation and self-abasement. A race
of such resentful men will of necessity eventually prove more prudent than any aristocratic race, it will honour prudence on quite a distinct scale,
as, in fact, a paramount condition of existence, while prudence among aristocratic men is apt to be
tinged with a delicate flavour of luxury and
refinement ; so among them it plays nothing like so integral a part as that complete certainty of
function of the governing unconscious instincts, or
as indeed a certain lack of prudence, such as a vehement and valiant charge, whether against danger or the enemy, or as those ecstatic bursts
of rage, love, reverence, gratitude, by which at all times noble souls have recognised each other. When the resentment of the aristocratic man
manifests itself, it fulfils and exhausts itself in an
immediate reaction, and consequently instills no
venom : on the other hand, it never manifests itself at all in countless instances, when in the case of
the feeble and weak it would be inevitablej An38 THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
inability to take seriously for any Igngth of time
their enemies, their disasters, their misdeeds^^^^^^^
“mTTe srVn of thejull_strong natures who possess_a_^ superfluity of moulding plastic force^that heals compleitely and produces forgetfulngssj^j^oodexaniple^
offfisTn the modern world isJlimbeau^who had no memory for any insults and meannesses which were practised_on_him, and wjio_wa§_j3n]y:-incapahlpi nf forgiving because he forgot. Such a man indeed shakes off with a shrug many a worm which would have buried itself in another ; it is only in characters like these that we see the possibility (supposing, of course, that there is such a possibility in the world) of the real ” love of one’s enemies.” What respect for his enemies is found, forsooth,
in an aristocratic man—and such a reverence is already a bridge to love ! He insists on having
his enemy to himself as his distinction. He
tolerates no other enemy but a man in whose
character there is nothing to despise and much
to honour ! On the other hand, imagine the “enemy” as the resentful man conceives hjm

and it is here exactly that we see his work, his creativeness ; he has conceived ” the evil enemy,” the ” evil one,” and indeed that is the root idea from which he now evolves as a contrasting and corresponding figure a ” good one,” himself—his very self!
II.
I The method of this man is quite contrary to that of the aristocratic man, who conceives the root idea ” good ” spontaneously and straight”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 39
away, that is to say, out of himself, and from that
material then creates for himself a concept of
” bad “J_J Th.\s^^sd”-.J^i aristocia.tlc^.oti§ia^_and.
.
that ” evil ” out of the cauldron of unsatisfied hatred —-the tormer an imitation, an ” extra,” an additional nuance; the lafterJ’oiTthe otli«’Tian37tKe~original,
the’ “beginning, the ^senlial”act in the conception]
tif^”srave-morality—-thgse . two ffiQld§.,’l.badI’^ad„
“evil,” how “great a ^ig^ence do they, mark, in
spite of the fact that they have an identical contrary in fhe idea ‘~good.^ But the idea ” good “
is not the same : much rather let the question be
asked, ” Who is really evil according to the meaning of the moJEalitv .of- resentment ? ” In all sternness let it be answered thus -.—just the good man of the other morality, just the aristocrat, the powerfuFone^the one who rules, but who is dis- torted by the venomous eye of resentfulness, into a new colour, a jiew si^jficatioii,. a new appear-
.ance. _ Jhis particular point we would be the last to deny : the man who learnt to know those
” good ” ones only as enemies, learnt at the same
time not to know them only as ^^ evil enemies” and the same men who inter pares were kept so
rigorously in bounds through convention, respect, custom, and gratitude, though much more through
mutual vigilance and jealousy inter pares, these men who in their relations with each other find so many new ways of manifesting consideration, self- control, delicacy, loyalty, pride, and friendship, these men are in reference to what is outside
their circle (where the foreign element, a
foreign country, begins), not much better than40 THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
beasts of prey, which have been let loose. They
enjoy there freedom from all social control, they
feel that in the wilderness they can give vent with impunity to that tension which is produced by
enclosure and imprisonment in the peace of society, they revert to the innocence of the beast-of-prey conscience, like jubilant monsters, who perhaps come from a ghastly bout of murder, arson, rape, and torture, with bravado and a moral equanimity,
as though merely some wild student’s prank had been played, perfectly convinced that the poets have now an ample theme to sing and celebrate.
It is impossible not to recognise at the core of all these aristocratic races the beast of prey; the magnificent blonde brute, avidly rampant for spoil and victory ; this hidden core needed an outlet from time to time, the beast must get loose again, must return into the wilderness—the Roman,
Arabic, German, and Japanese nobility, the Homeric heroes, the Scandinavian Vikings, are
all alike in this need. It is the aristocratic races who have left the idea ” Barbarian ” on all the tracks in which they have marched ; nay, a con- sciousness of this very barbarianism, and even a pride in it, manifests itself even in their highest
civilisation (for example, when Pericles says to his Athenians in that celebrated funeral oration,
” Our audacity has forced a way over every land and sea, rearing everywhere imperishable memorials of itself {qx good -axiA for evil”). This audacity of aristocratic races, mad, absurd, and spasmodic as may be its expresssion ; the incalcul- able and fantastic nature of their enterprises,
—”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 41
Pericles sets in special relief and glory the padvfiia of the Athenians, their nonchalance and contempt
for safety, body, life, and comfort, their awful joy
and intense delight in all destruction, in all the
ecstasies of victory and cruelty,—all these features become crystallised, for those who suffered thereby
in the picture of the ” barbarian,” of the ” evil enemy,” perhaps of the ” Goth ” and of the
” Vandal.” The profound, icy mistrust which the German provokes, as soon as he arrives at power,

even at the present time,—is always still an after- math of that inextinguishable horror with which
for whole centuries Europe has regarded the wrath
of the blonde Teuton beast (although between the
old Germans and ourselves there exists scarcely a
psychological, let alone a physical, relationship).
I have once called attention to the embarrassment
of Hesiod, when he conceived the series of social ages, and endeavoured to express them in gold,
silver, and bronze. He could only dispose of the
contradiction, with which he was confronted, by
the Homeric world, an age magnificent indeed, but at the same time so awful and so violent, by
making two ages out of one, which he henceforth
placed one behind each other—first, the age of the
heroes and demigods, as that world had remained
in the memories of the aristocratic families, who
found therein their own ancestors ; secondly, the bronze age, as that corresponding age appeared to the descendants of the oppressed, spoiled, ill- treated, exiled, enslaved ; namely, as an age of
bronze, as I have said, hard, cold, terrible, without
feelings and without conscience, crushing every-42 THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
thing, and bespattering everything with blood. Grantedjhe truth of the theory now belie_yed to_ belrue, that the very essence^ of all civilisation is to
I train ^^”o’f man, the beast of prey, a tame and
civilised animal, a domesticatgd animal, it follows indubitably that we must regard as ..the real tools Vof civilisation all Jhose instincts of reaction and
resentment, by the help of which the .Aristocratic.
, races, together with their ideals,, were,J5«aUjj-de.- graded ^nd overpoweredj though that has not yet come to be synonymous with saying that the bearers of those tools also represented the civilisa- tion. It is rather the contrary that is not only probable—nay, it is palpable to-day ; these bearers of vindictive instincts that have to be bottled up, these descendants of all European and non- European slavery, especially of the pre-Aryan
population—these people, I say, represent the
decline of humanity ! j^hese ” tools of civilisa- tion ” are a disgrace to humanity, and constitute
in reality more of an argument against civilisation, more of a reason why civilisation should be sus- pectqdj One may be perfectly justified in being always afraid of the blonde beast that lies at the core of all aristocratic races, and in being on
one’s guard : but who would not a hundred times prefer to be afraid, when one at the same time admires, than to be immune from fear, at the cost of being perpetually obsessed with the loathsome
spectacle of the distorted, the dwarfed, the stunted, the envenomed ? And is that not our fate ? What
produces to-day our repulsion towards ” man ” ? —for we suffer from ” man,” there is no doubt”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 43
about it. It IS not fear ; it is rather that we have
nothing more to fear from men ; it is that the worm ” man ” is in the foreground and pullulates
;
it is thatjj^e ” tame man,” the wretched jnedipcre and unedifying creature, has learnt to consider
himself a goal and a pinnacle, an inner meaning,
an hfsTonc principle, a “”‘higher man ‘1; yes, it
is” that he has a certain right so to consider
himself, in so far as he feels that in contrast to that excess of deformity, disease, exhaustion, and
effeteness whose odour is beginning to pollute present-day Europe, he at any rate has achieved
a relative success, he at any rate still says ” yes

to life.
12.
I cannot refrain at this juncture from uttering a sigh and one last hope. What is it precisely which I find intolerable? That which I alone cannot get rid of, which makes me choke and
faint ? Bad air ! bad air ! That something
misbegotten comes near me; that I must inhale
the odour of the entrails of a misbegotten soul !

That excepted, what can one not endure in the way of need, privation, bad weather, sickness,
toil, solitude? In point of fact, one manages to get over everything, born as one is to a burrowing and battling existence ; one always returns once
again to the light, one always lives again one’s golden hour of victory—and then one stands as one was born, unbreakable, tense, ready for something more difficult, for something more distant,
like a bow stretched but the tauter by every strain.44 THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
But from time to time do ye grant me—assuming
that ” beyond good and evil ” there are goddesses who can grant—one glimpse, grant me but one glimpse only, of something perfect, fully realised, happy, mighty, triumphant, of something that
still gives cause for fear ! A glimpse of a man
that justifies the existence of ftian^_a_glimgse_ ot” “an lncarnateniirfnarr~hg|^fie”sTTEat realisS^nd redeems, -for the sake of^’hich one may holdTfast to the belief in man ! JForJJifi-jiosiJ’io’n is thja^ in the dwarfing and levelling of the European man lurks our greatest perilj for it is this outlook which fatigues—we see to-day nothing which
wishes to be greater, we^surmi^_that_Jhf prnrpss
is always still backwards^ still backwar^^aJtQSMtfds- something more attenuated, more inoffensivg,JHflre cunning, more comfortable, more mediocre, more
indifferent, more Chinese, more Christian—man,
there is no doubt about it, grows always ” better
” —the destiny of Europe lies even in thisjj^that in losing the fear of nian, wejiave also lost_the_ hope in man, yea, the wiU_to.be manJ~TE^light
of man now fatigues^ —What is presenF-day

Nihilism if it is not that ?—We are tired of^«.~
13. But let us come back to it ; the problem of another origin of the good—of the good, as the resentful man has thought it out—demands its solution. It is not surprising that the lambs should bear a grudge against the great birds of prey, but that
\is no reason for blaming the great birds of prey”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 45
sfor taking the little lambs. And when the l^bs^
I say among themselves, ” These birds of prey are
evil, and he who is as far removed from being a
bird of prey, who is rather its opposite, a lamb,

is he not good ? ” then there is nothing to cavil at
in the setting up of this ideal, though it may also be that the birds of prey will regard it a little sneeringly, and perchance say to themselves, ” We
bear no grudge against them, these good lambs, we even like them : nothing is tastier than a
tender lamb.” (To require of strength that it should not express itself as strength, that it should
not be a wish to overpower, a wish to overthrow,
a wish to become master, a thirst for enemies and antagonisms and triumphs, is just as absurd
as to require of weakness that it should express
itself as strength, fi A quantum of force is j ust such a quantum of moy^nentjjall. action—rather
i t is nothing else than just those very^^enomena^
of moving, willing, acting, and can only appear otherwisejn themisleadingerrors’ ot language’
(and the fundamental fallacies of reason which
have become petrified therein), which understands, and understands wrongly, all working as con- ditioned~by a worker, Ey”a~^subiect.” And just exactly as the people separate the lightning from
its flash, and interpret the latter as a thing done,
as the working of a subject which is called light- ning, so also does the popular morality separate
strength from tKe” expressiuii

uf htreiiglh^ ay
though behind the strong man there existed_some
indifferent neutral substratum, which enjoyed a
caprice and option as to whether™or~not it shbul346 \ THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
express_sti;ength. But there is no such sui-
‘ stratum, there is no ” being ” behmd^ doing, working, becoming; “the doer” is a nTerkJi^i^
agVio the action. The action is everything. In point of fact, the people dupUcate the doing, when they make the lightning lighten, that is a
” doing-doing ” : they make the same phenomenon
first a cause, and then, secondly, the effect of that cause. The scientists fail to improve matters when they say, ” Force moves, force causes,” and
so on. Our whole science is stillj_in^spite of all its coldness, of all its freedom from passion, a dupe of the tricks of language, and has never succeeded”
in getting rid of that superstitious_chang.eling “the subj,ec4;4U(the atom, to give another instance, is such a changeling, just as the Kantian ” Thing-initself”). What wonder, if the suppressed and
stealthily simmering passions of revenge~^d
hatrpd pvplniF tor ffiejrnwn advantage this tjpjjgf, and indeed hold.„no belief with a more steadfast enthusiasm than this—”that the strong has~the
option of being weak, and the bird of prey of Being a lamb.” THereby do they win for themselveiTftEr*
riglit of attributing to the birds of prey the re- sponsibility for being birds of prey : when the oppressed, down-trodden, and overpowered say to themselves with the vindictive guile of weakness,
” Let us be otherwise than the evil, namely, good
!
and good is every one who does not oppress, who
hurts no one, who does not attack, who does not pay back, who hands over revenge to God, who
holds himself, as we do, in hiding ; who goes out of the way of evil, and deniands, in short, little.'”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 47
from life ; like ourselves the patient, the meek, the
just,”—yet all this, in its cold and unprejudiced
interpretation, means nothing more than ” once for
all, the weak are weak ; it is good to do nothing for which we are not strong enough “
; but this dismal
state of affairs, this prudence of the lowest order, which even insects possess (which in a great danger
are fain to sham death so as to avoid doing ” too much “), has, thanks to the counterfeiting and
self-deception of weakness, come to masquerade in the pomp of an ascetic, mute, and expectant virtue,
JTjust as though the verj/ weakness of the weak

that is, forsooth, its being, its working, its whole
unique inevitable inseparable reality —were a
voluntary result, something wished, chosen, a deed, an act of merit. | This kind^of manfinds-the belief
in a neutral, free-choosing ” subject” necessary from—affTTisttnfft of seli-preservation, of self-assertion, in “Which’everyTie is fain to sanctify^ itself. Jhe^subject (or, to use jpopular language, the jg^Q..
has perEaps~proved itself the best dogm.a.in the world simply because it rendered .possible-to.the horde of mortal, weak, and oppressed individuals of every kind, that most sublime specimelT of seTT- deception, !He~ interpretation of weakness as freedom7″o^f~&eing’TKis,~6r being that, as meri

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