jHodern anarchy, and indeed that tendency to the”

jHodern anarchy, and indeed that tendency to the
” Commune,” the most primitive form of society, which is now common to all the Socialists in Europe, does not in its real essence signify a monstrous reversion—and that the conquering and master race—the Aryan race, is not also becoming inferior physiologically?) I believe that
I can explain the Latin bonus as the “warrior”: my hypothesis is that I am right in deriving bonus from an older duonus (compare bellum = duellum = duen-lum, in which ‘the word duonus appears to me to be contained). Bonus accordingly as the man of discord, of variance, ” entzweiung ” {duo), as the warrior : one sees what in ancient Rome ” the good” meant for a man. Must not our actual German word gut mean ” the godlike, the man of godlike race ” ? and be identical with the national name (originally the nobles’ name) of the Goths ? The grounds for this supposition do not apper- tain to this work.
fAlDove all, there is no exception (though there are opportunities for exceptions) to this rule, that the idea of political superiority, always resokes
itself into the idea of psychological superioritgt in those cases where the highest caste is at the same time Xh&priestly caste, and in accordance with
its general characteristics confers on itself the privilege of a title which alludes specifically to
its priestly function^ It is in these cases, for instance, that ” clean^ and ” unclean ” confront”GOOD AND EVIL,” “GOOD AND BAD.” 27
each other fJOTthe first time as badges of class distigstion^-here again” there develops a”j[ood”
and a ” bad,” in a sense~wIiicK”Tias ceased to be
merely social. Moreover, care should be taken
not ‘t6~take these ideas of ” clean ” and ” unclean “
too seriously, too broadly, or too symbolically
all the ideas of ancient man have, on the contrary, got to be understood in their initial stages, in a sense which is, to an almost inconceivable extent,
crude, coarse, physical, and narrow, and above all essentially unsymbolical. The ” clean man ” is originally only a man who washes himself, who
abstains from certain foods which are conducive
to skin diseases, who does not sleep with the unclean women of the lower classes, who has a
horror of blood—not more, not much more ! On
the other hand, the very nature of a priestly aristocracy shows the reasons why just at such an early juncture there should ensue a really dangerous sharpening and intensification of opposed values : it is, in fact, through these opposed values that gulfs are cleft in the social plane, which a veritable Achilles of free thought would shudder to cross. There is from the
outset a certain diseased taint in such sacerdotal
aristocracies, and in the habits which prevail in such societies—habits which, averse as they are
to action, constitute a compound of introspection and explosive emotionalism, as a result of which
there appears that introspective morbidity and
neurasthenia, which adheres almost inevitably to
all priests at all times : with regard, however, to the remedy which they themselves have invented28 THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS.
for this disease—the philosopher has no option but to state, that it has proved itself in its effects a hundred times more dangerous than the disease, from which it should have been the deliverer. Humanity itself is still diseased from the effects of the naivetds of this priestly cure. Take, for instance, certain kinds of diet (abstention from
flesh), fasts, sexual continence, flight into the wilderness (a kind of Weir-Mitchell isolation, though of course without that system of excessive feeding and fattening which is the most
efficient antidote to all the hysteria of the ascetic ideal) ; consider too the whole metaphysic of the
priests, with its war on the senses, its enervation, its hair-splitting ; consider its self-hypnotism on the fakir and Brahman principles (it uses Brahman as a glass disc and obsession), and that climax which we can understand only too well of an unusual satiety with its panacea of nothing- ness (or God :—the demand for a unto mystica with God is the demand of the Buddhist for nothingness, Nirvana—and nothing else !). In sacerdotal societies every element is on a more dangerous scale, not merely cures and remedies, but also pride, revenge, cunning, exaltation, love, ambition, virtue, morbidity :—further, it can fairly] be stated that it is on the soil of this essentially\ dangerous form of human society, the sacerdotal form, that man really becomes for the first time an interesting animal, that it is in this form that the soul of man has in a higher sense attained depths and become evil—and those are the two fundamental forms of the superiority which up”GOOD AND EVIL,” ” GOOD AND BAD.” 29
to the present man has exhibited over every other
The reader will have already surmised with what ease the priestly mode of valuation can branch off from the knightly aristocratic mode,
and then develop into the very antithesis of the
latter: special impetus is given to this opposition, by every occasion when the castes of the priests and warriors confront each other with mutual
jealousy and cannot agree over the prize. The
knightly-aristocratic ” values ” are based on a careful cult of the physical, on a flowering, rich, and
even effervescing healthiness, that goes considerably beyond what is necessary for maintaining life, on
war, adventure, the chase, the dance, the tourney

on everything, in fact, which is contained in strong,
free, and joyous action. The priestly-aristocratic mode of valuation is—we have seen—based on
other hypotheses : it is bad enough for this class when it is a question of war ! Yet the priests are, as is notorious, the worst enemies—why ? Because
they are the weakest. Their weakness causes
their hate to expand into a monstrous and
sinister shape, a shape which is most crafty and
most poisonous. The really great haters in the!
history of the world have always been priests, who
are also the cleverest haters—in comparison with
the cleverness of priestly revenge, every other piece of cleverness is practically negligiblej Human
history would be too fatuous for anything were
it not for the cleverness imported into it by the


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